7 Stages of Dementia: Understanding the FAST Scale & Score Results

Dementia has different stages that signify how the disease has progressed in a patient and what is currently happening to their state of mind and body. 

Understanding the correct stage helps caregivers, family members, and medical professionals know what is happening to their loved ones and how they can prepare the patient for future challenges.

What is the FAST Scale?

 FAST stands for Functional Assessment Staging Tool, and it was developed by Dr. Barry Reisberg, a leading expert in Alzheimer’s disease. While other scales such as GSD focus on cognitive decline, FAST concentrates on a person’s ability to function normally and perform daily tasks.

Dementia is usually categorized into three stages: early or mild stage, middle stage, and late stage. The FAST scale explores each stage by delving deeper into them and breaking them down into detailed and comprehensible descriptions.

The FAST scale divides dementia into seven stages where each stage is associated with a label of function or the disease:

  • Stage 1: Normally functioning adult
  • Stage 2: Normally functioning senior adult
  • Stage 3: Early dementia
  • Stage 4: Mild dementia
  • Stage 5: Mid-stage dementia
  • Stage 6: Moderately severe dementia
  • Stage 7: Severe (final stages) of dementia

What does each stage in the FAST scale mean?

 At stage 1, an individual is free of any functional and cognitive decline. They are normal adults of any age who are mentally healthy.

At stage 2, an individual demonstrates ‘normal aged forgetfulness.’ This can be defined as memory lapses such as forgetting the name of acquaintances or misplacing items like glasses and house keys. Some may find it challenging to concentrate and focus at work, while others may sometimes struggle to find the right words. Experts believe that stage 2 can be considered normal for senior adults.

At stage 3, work issues progress to a higher level, and individuals may find it difficult to travel to new places. At this point, patients are often seen repeating a story over and over. Concentration becomes even more difficult, and the person may not be able to perform complex tasks like handling personal finances or planning dinner for guests.

By stage 4, most dementia patients are diagnosed because of their apparent cognitive impairment. The individual starts forgetting major or recent events or has trouble remembering what day or month it is. Although most individuals still have an adequate level of independence and can remember things like their address and phone number, patients have difficulty handling things like fixing meals or paying bills. At this point, the patient is in the early stages of dementia.

At stage 5, the patient has moved onto the middle stage and needs assistance for most tasks. They can perform some basic chores like feeding themselves, but someone else would have to prepare meals for them. Confusion, hallucination, suspiciousness, wandering, and other problematic behaviors begin at this stage. The person with dementia requires 24/7 attention and a full-time caregiver to tend to their needs.

Stage six can be divided into sub-stages that include:

  • Dressing difficulties
  • Difficulty in bathing
  • Inability to use the toilet without assistance
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Fecal incontinence

At stage 6, the person with dementia will require 24/7 supervision and become entirely dependent on their caregiver for assistance in everything they do. This stage is considered the beginning of severe dementia. Patients may develop severe mobility issues and start losing their ability to speak. At stage 6, many caregivers and family members find it necessary to transfer the patient to a specialized memory care community.

As the patient approaches the final stage, they start to lose the ability to move and speak. Stage 7 can be divided into these sub-stages:

  • Severely limited speech
  • Little or no intelligible speech
  • Inability to smile
  • Inability to walk
  • Inability to sit up without assistance
  • Inability to hold head up

Stage 7 is the final and last stage of cognitive disease. The patient’s ability to speak will eventually go away, and gradually they will lose their remaining abilities. Communication with others will become impossible. Finally, the body will stop responding and start to shut down.

Understanding the FAST Score Results

The FAST scale provides caregivers and family members a framework to assess and monitor the progress of a patient with dementia. Out of all the measures, the FAST scale has been accepted as the most accurate in identifying critical stages of this disease. Suppose an individual loses certain abilities that are listed at a later stage but still performs tasks from an earlier stage. In that case, it is possible that their mental issues are not due to Alzheimer’s disease. This information is very useful and helpful because it means that the patient can potentially be treated. If the patient has reached stage 7, caregivers can see that as an indication that they need respite care hospice.

How to Manage Nap Time for Toddlers

Both parents and teachers alike need to know how to manage nap time and how to help toddlers get the rest that they need. Young children need naps in order to get enough sleep in a 24-hour period. Naps can refresh children and get them ready to learn, and they can also help them stay in a good mood.

Choose a Set Time for Naps:

It can be helpful for parents or teachers to have a certain time when they lay children down for a nap each day. Getting children into a routine can help them know when nap time is coming, and it can help their bodies get ready for sleep. The adult who is trying to manage nap time should figure out the time that they want to use as nap time, and then they should stick with that time all throughout the week.

Do Calm Activities Before the Nap:

It is important for children to calm down before they are expected to sleep. A parent might take their child for a short walk before they lay them down for a nap, or a teacher might read to the children in their care. It can be helpful to do the same calm activity before each nap that a child takes so that they know what is coming.

Use Music During Naps:

Playing soothing music while children are laying down can help keep the children happy and it can help them drift off to sleep. Music can also help cover any outside noise that might keep toddlers distracted and make them want to get up rather than rest.

Make Wake-Up Time Happy:

If someone wants children to go down for a nap willingly, they need to let the children know that they will have plenty of time for fun after they get up from their naps. It is important for a parent or teacher to have an enjoyable activity picked out right after a child’s nap. This might include time outside, a special treat, or a fun craft activity.

Stay Close While Naps Happen:

It is important for an adult to stay close while children are napping. If a person can’t be in the same room where the child is napping – or if they have too much to do to simply sit in one spot – they might consider having a monitor set up in that room so that they can keep an eye on the sleeping child while away from them. It is important for an adult to be close enough to get to the child quickly if they need them.

Nap Time Does Not Have to be Difficult:

With a little planning, a parent or teacher can make nap time stress-free and enjoyable time for everyone.

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How To Stop Being A Perfectionist

Wanting to do things perfectly stops you before you even start. Freezing before taking the first action. Putting things on hold trying to figure out a flawless way to carry on. 

Do you find yourself constantly in these situations? 

Wanting to do your best at every task and deliver top-quality work is both a blessing and a curse. On one hand, it gives you an extra kick to be efficient, and on the other hand, you can easily lose yourself, and get stuck on a task, or even quitting altogether. 

Learning where perfectionism has a positive impact and where it does not is key to have a healthy life and to feel good about yourself. 

As Leo Tolstoy put it “If you look for perfection, you’ll never be content.”

Therefore, pay attention to the negative effects of perfectionism and moderate it while still having high standards. 

Here are 3 tips that will help you. 

Adjust Your Standards

Easier said than done, right? If you change the way you think about failure and manage your perfectionism you won’t be disappointed ever again. So it’s absolutely worth it. You’ll see the value and wisdom every experience in life has given you.  

Try acknowledging your behavior and see in what aspects your standards get in your own way.

Yes, we’ve all had failures that made our lives miserable and it’s natural not wanting to go through the same difficult experiences again. But is it better not to do anything at all? 

I don’t think so. If you have doubts, make a case study of yourself considering all the times you thought you’d be terrible at something and you could figure it out. 

Think about all the unnecessary anxiety you’re putting yourself through in the process of achieving the unachievable. If you learn how your brain tricks you into obsessing with small details and procrastinating, you’ll be able to look at the big picture and not let your perfectionism shoot you in the foot.

Think of what situations tend to bring out your perfectionist behavior and how you can deal with the situation better next time. And by better, I mean calmly and patiently, not outperforming. 

Don’t Quit If Things Don’t Go As Planned

If thinking about facing an issue in the middle of a task is your worst nightmare, welcome to the club! This behavior can easily lead to leaving things unfinished. Thus, it’s a limiting behavior. 

We often think about the worst-case scenario if we’re not overachieving, over-functioning, or excelling at every single thing in life and this causes us to feel like a failure and quitting. Instead, give yourself a reason to move on!

Get comfortable with not always being the best and experimenting along the way.

Celebrate Your Progress

You deserve it! Taking the time to reflect on all you’ve done on the week or the day will make you realize how hard you’re working and enjoy your wins before jumping on the next project or focusing on the small flaws. 

Notice when you successfully balanced your perfectionist tendencies and ended up moving things forward. Sometimes just getting things done is a big accomplishment. 

Give your best and be your biggest supporter, not a critic.

How Stress Puts a Strain on Your Life

We all experience stress from time to time, but we all experience it differently. For some, it’s the daily frustration of a traffic jam or the fear of missing a deadline. For others, it’s the result of a major life event, such as moving, losing a loved one, financial strain or personal trauma. No matter the case or cause, stress is simply a natural reaction to changes and challenges in life. It may be a single or short-term occurrence, or it can be chronic and happen again and again over a period of time. But if you’re constantly feeling strained and drained, the pressure may cause bigger problems with your body, your mind and your life than the ones that are stressing you out! Discover the many effects of stress and how they can quickly become a burden on your physical health, mental well-being and overall quality of life.

Stress Can Make You Sick

If you’re sick and tired of always feeling worried and hurried, don’t be surprised if you soon become sick and tired! Numerous studies have shown that stress can lower your immunity, which may explain why you catch a cold during stressful times in your life. See, chronic stress prevents your immune system from functioning normally, which leaves you vulnerable to illnesses and various health conditions. As a result, learning how to handle pressure well may be the secret to actually staying well. 

Stress Messes with Your Mind

The damaging effects of stress go far beyond the physical by wreaking havoc with your mood, your emotions and mental health. Whenever you feel stressed out, you experience all kinds of different emotions, such as anxiety, anger, fear, frustration and sadness. You may even experience several at the same time, which can affect your body and mood, appearing as headaches, insomnia, irritability and restlessness. For some, stressful events become too hard to handle and lead to symptoms of depression.

Stress Hurts Your Heart

The heart of the problem is that stress can physically damage your heart. That’s because stressful events increase your heart rate and constrict your blood vessels. As a result, your heart is forced to work harder, which quickly raises your blood pressure. So it should come as no surprise that studies have found an increase in the rate of heart attacks following the stress of natural disasters, such as hurricanes and earthquakes. In addition, coronary heart disease is much more common in people that live with chronic stress. For all of these reasons, managing stress is an idea worth taking to heart.

Stress Packs on the Pounds

Stress can feel like having the weight of the world on your shoulders, but that weight may actually be on your belly! There is a clear correlation between weight gain and stress. That link is due to a hormone called cortisol, which gets released during stressful times. Studies have found that cortisol can make your body hold onto more fat tissue and store it around your belly. Adding to the weight of the problem, cortisol increases your cravings for sugary and fatty foods. Since stress produces cortisol, you’re more likely to reach for those calorie-packed foods to help you feel better. Just be aware that those extra cinnamon rolls and egg rolls will probably end up as belly rolls!

Fortunately, there are many ways to manage and minimize stress, such as getting regular exercise, learning relaxation skills, spending time with people you enjoy and simply keeping a sense of humor. Since stress will always affect our lives, the only hope is to learn how to cope.

Beauty Tips When You Are In Your Early 20’s

It is commonly said that the most beautiful ages of girl’s skin are the magnificent 20’s. Although, it is important to note that skin health can be maintained only with a proper skincare routine and can never be started early enough. In order to prevent skin issues and delay aging process later in the 40s and 50s, laying the foundations of a glowing skin is indispensable. For this reason, here are the best tips for evolving a killer beauty routine.

1. Healthy body, healthy skin

It is always a good idea to start with the very basics. As we all know, there are no skincare products on earth that could treat and promote skin condition all alone. To help these products accomplish their tasks, it is crucial to living a healthy lifestyle, including eating fresh, whole foods, drinking lots of water and exercising consistently. This all will help boost your immune system and stimulate blood circulation, hence make your skin flawless and glowing.

2. Good sleep makes good skin

It is not a coincidence that an average person spends about twenty-five years sleeping in their life. This period is not the only key for the mind and body but also for the skin, as it has enough time to regenerate, heal itself, deep moisturize and let active ingredients penetrate deeply. Besides, there are no harmful sun exposure effects that can impede these processes. So finally, here is a good excuse to stay in bed and enjoy as long sleeps as possible.

3. Always remember to moisturize

Though your skin looks perfect even without effort, it is always highly recommended to use moisturizer. The effects of air pollution, stressful lifestyle and dehydration may not be able to see, it is still better to prevent skin problems than trying to return them a few years later. On the other hand, as we mentioned above, delaying the aging process is also a pleasing benefit.

4. Exfoliating is a game-changer

Luckily, our skin in the 20s have more elasticity and it renews itself more easily than later as we age. Though the skin gets rid of dead skin cells faster and is able to heal itself, implementing exfoliation into the beauty routine helps wash off dirt, flush out clogged pores and get the skin to be prepared for the further steps, such as applying moisturizer or anti-aging cream.

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Importance of Family Law: What You Should Know

A law is not created just for any unimportant reason. A law is created to build balance, peace, and harmony in a society. If there is no law existing, chaos would conquer the world. Just imagine the movie “The Purge” coming in reality, you would not want that right? The law is very important since it acts as a guideline for every individual, society, and organization to the right conduct and right things accepted in society.

You might think that the law is a trap for some citizens who are not aware of the law, but no. Rules and regulations are posted in public areas for citizens to see and understand, if no rules are posted, you can go to your nearest government agency and complain. But no one should be unaware of the law since it is taught to us in high school, and no government should fail to let it’s citizens become unaware of the law.

There are many things that the law covers up, from criminal law to private law. If you disobeyed the law, the law will punish you. There are tons of rules around the world regarding the citizen and the law. Law can be met in many categories as to why us citizens should always be knowledgeable about the law. As to what the famous quotation states that “Ignorance of the law excuses no one.”

One part that the law covers up is the family law. The family law deals with the area of family matters like marriage, divorce, legal separation, child support, child custody, adoption, alimony, and other related family issues. This law is created since some families tend to have problems and issues, as to what I have stated earlier, the law is created to bring peace to society. If a family has problems or other related issues, the law is always here to help them solve anything they want to be solved. The law guides the family on the right path. Now, what is the importance of family law? The importance of this area of law will be stated below.

For marriage

Emotionally and mentally thinking, marriage is not really needed. Marriage meaning in legal form. You can be with a person you love forever even though if you don’t get married. But due to law, they created a law to make marriages legal, to file forms and show that you really are married to this significant person. Now the importance of this marriage in legal documents is to provide the two people to have benefits, benefits like when the other partner dies, all riches will go to his/her partner, and many other benefits are created for married couples.

Child custody

When a married couple gets divorced, the law is there to decide whether the children will go to the mom or go to the dad. But mostly what happens is that the child will go to the mother’s custody.

For divorce

Sometimes there would be married couples who don’t love each other anymore or aren’t fit to be living together that’s why it would leave them to having a divorce. Some countries don’t support divorce especially in countries where spirituality is dominant.

If you plan on asking about your legal rights as a family, it is best to consult a Family and Divorce Lawyer who is reliable highly experienced.

Benefits of a Positive Lifestyle

All of us have a lot of problems. We might even have depression without knowing it. There is no guarantee that we can totally eliminate all of our problems instantly. But one of the best thing that you can do to lessen the troubled feelings and negativity, is to stay and think POSITIVE. The more positive you are, the happier you can be. You will learn how to love yourself more and to appreciate yourself. Having a positive outlook in life will make a huge difference in your life. Here are some benefits you can get if you have a positive lifestyle.


Having more energy

Having so much stuff on our mind can make us feel heavy and tired. But when you don’t think about the problem too much, you will feel light and even enjoy your day. Staying positive will help you have more energy to get through the day.


Motivated mind

With a positive mind, you will feel more motivated. If you have a goal, you will be able to achieve it quicker and easier.


Less stress

We tend to overthink which leads us to stress out over something so much. Having a positive mind will lessen the stress that we have on our minds. Try to think of your goals and dreams, it will help you to think positive.


Harmonious relationships

If you are too stressed out over something and your mind is full of negativity, you might create enemies. Because of the negative vibes, you’re feeling, you might hurt others’ feelings by saying things that you shouldn’t have said. But, of course, if you have a positive mind, you will be more sensitive and considerate to others. You will feel like you want to spread the happiness you are feeling. You will even have more friends with this attitude.


Decreased mental illness

Living a positive lifestyle means that you also eat healthily. Nutritious foods will help you maintain your body fitness and also keep your mind healthy. Daily exercise can lessen the moody attitude and keep you glowing.


Healthy self-esteem

At some point in our lives, we might have felt insecure. But we shouldn’t really feel that. We all have our differences and uniqueness and our own talents. You might not know it, but you may have a special talent that nobody can do or achieve. We just have to think it that way. Having a positive mind will help us realize our worth and we should just trust ourselves.


It attracts great opportunities

If you stay positive, it is possible that you may attract opportunities. People do love a person who is friendly and full of spirit. If you are one, you may get the attention of others. They will be curious of you and they might want to get to know you more. These people can be owners of a company or even talent managers. This can be an opportunity for you to achieve your dreams.

6 Effective Daily Routine to Keep House Clean

Your house, the place where you are to relax, feel free, be comfortable and you call home. But things that could bar you from attaining them is when you see it dirty or unorganized. Research says that having a filthy and unorganized home attracts negativity. We all do not want any negativity, especially in our homes. So we provide you below the daily routine to keep your house clean and make it a happy place.

1. Make your bed

Making your bed first thing in the morning. Instead of it being your first accomplished task of the day, it also becomes a source of a small sense of pride that will encourage you to do another task and create a chain reaction of encouragement of doing another and another. And by the end of the day, that first simple task will be the reason why you have accomplished multiple tasks throughout the day as stated by Admiral McRaven.

2. Clean your kitchen

After making our bed, we all have our first meal of the day which is our breakfast. After cooking, preparing and feasting on our sumptuous meal it’s impossible for us not having any mess at all. Immediately after eating, you go and wash the dishes, put everything you used in place and wipe the table and countertops to make everything look neat and clean. Another task has been done and you will gain positive energy which will give you more encouragement for performing another task for the day.

3. Organize your space

Put everything needed where needed and put everything not needed away from things needed. Making a certain area organized will help you use the area completely and hassle-free. It will also give you the opportunity to have you familiarized to items or objects at your home. For a professional-looking paint job, do what the experts do. It is always good to ask professional house painters for an advice on how to paint your room to make it more organize.

4. Clean the bathroom

Clean the place where your concerts take place. We release a lot of dirt and germs when we use the bathroom. We clean our bathroom once in a while but not enough. Germs and bacteria are rapidly spreading microorganisms they can reach the air and be flying around your bathroom causing you to catch a disease. By simply wiping, brushing or cleaning the sink, countertops, toilet bowl, walls, and shower areas every day you will avoid these microbes. You don’t need any general cleaning for your bathroom every day, just clean the area to reduce the microbes.

5. Sing while you clean

Singing or whistling while you work gives you positive energy making you much more active and productive throughout the whole task and as I have said earlier one accomplished task encourages you to perform another.

6. Manage your time

Time is much more precious than gold, time management is an effective method for accomplishing more tasks or works. Ways you can save time is doing tasks at the same time or multitasking, you can do the laundry while you clean the bathroom, you can organize your areas while you do work or cook your meal. As long as you have extra time while doing a task make yourself do something for that extra time until you have accomplished many tasks or even all your tasks to be done for the day and then you will be able to do anything you want, if you want to slouch on the couch to watch some movies or even go out and hang with friends or even have your friends come over to your house and hang out to show them how a responsible homeowner you are.

5 TOP Benefits of Self-Care

Taking care of yourself can help you become more productive and work more efficiently. This pertains to taking care of your whole well-being: body, mind, emotions, and spirit. There are some enormous benefits you can get from self-care.

1. Reduces Negative Effects of Stress

Having stress can limit you from acting to your full capacity. It can entirely affect your whole body and mind, leaving you to not getting things done. Practicing self-care can help you reduce the negative effects of stress and will allow you to cope up with your working environment despite the little worries you have.

2. Helps you refocus

Witha lot in our minds, most of the time we don’t know what to really focus on.We get confused on what activities to pursue that will help us get near our goals. And there are just a LOT more to consider. Having a self-care process will allow us to clear our minds and make us realize what we should really be tackling.

3. Have an attitude of gratitude

Doing some self-care can help us realize the small things in life and make us appreciate them. We will realize the value of things no matter how small. We will learn how to appreciate people more and be aware of things that they do for us. Self-care will help us maintain a healthy relationship with other people.

4. Prevents “burnout”

We’ve all been to that point where we just want to sprawl ourselves on a bed and do nothing. Since we are so tired – physically, mentally, emotionally. Doing some self-care routine can help us prevent this from happening. It will help us clear our minds and remind us to take one single step at a time.

5. Become more Organized

Feeling well and good will lead you to a happier mood. Thus, when happy, you feel more focused daily and you have a presence of mind. You are able to schedule your errands properly, you are motivated to keep the home clean, and more. Practicing self-care and weaving it into your daily habit will lead to a happier and organized life.


These list of benefits is enough for you to push yourself to practice a self-care habit. Always remember to not just take care of your body, but also our emotions, mood, vibe, and spirit are in need of some “nutrition”.